Indigenous Knowledge and Prospects for Income and Employment Generation: The Case of Handicraft Production among Rural Women in Tanzania
AbstractThis paper examines the extent to which handicraft activities can generate viableincome and employment for rural women in Tanzania. Based on survey datacollected from three regions of Tanzania (Iringa, Dodoma, and Mbeya), thestudy finds that women engaged in handicrafts earn lower mean incomes thanthose in farming and livestock keeping. Handicraft activities are not donethroughout the entire year, and selling activities have peak periods. The keychallenges women face are: marketing, inadequate capital, difficulties inacquiring raw materials, and low prices. Some policy implications include:linking handicrafts to tourism activities so the activity can be promoted as aviable employment option for rural women; providing women with access toaffordable loans and inputs; providing marketing channels for selling handicraftproducts; providing support in marketing products internationally; and providingtraining on improving the quality of products so that the women can compete inboth local and international markets.
Bank of Tanzania. 2005. Economic Bulletin for the Quarter Ending December 2005. 37(4). Dar es Salaam.
Bank of Tanzania. 2010. Economic Bulletin for the Quarter Ending December 2010. 42(4). Dar es Salaam.
Bank of Tanzania. 2017. Economic Bulletin for The Quarter Ending December 2017. 49(4). Dar es Salaam.
Becker, Gary S. 1964. Human Capital: A Theoretical and Empirical Analysis with Special Reference to Education. New York: Columbia University Press.
Bhattarai, K. 2017. "Determinants of Wages and Labour Supply in the UK." Chinese Business Review 16(3): 126-140.
Blackden, M. C., and Q. Wodon. 2006. "Gender, Time Use and Poverty: Introduction." In Gender, Time Use, and Poverty in Sub-Saharan Africa. World Bank Working Paper No. 73, edited by M. C.
Blackden and Q. Wodon, 1–10. Washington, DC: World Bank.
Brown, A., P. Mackie, and A. Smith. 2015. Financial Inclusion and Microfinance in Tanzania. Cardiff, UK: Cardiff School of Geography and Planning.
Chen Yen-Chi. 2017. A Tutorial on Kernel Density Estimation and Recent Advances. Department of Statistics. Seattle, Washington: University of Washington. Accessed April 4, 2019.
Chisenga, Justin. 2002. "Indigenous Knowledge: Africa's Opportunity to Contribute to Global Information Content." South African Journal of Libraries and Information Science 68(1): 16-22.
De Bartolo, Annamaria. 1999. Modern Human Capital Analysis: Estimation of US, Canada and Italy Earning Functions. Working Paper No. 212. Dipartimento di Statistica, UniversitÃ degli studi di
East African Centre of Excellence. 2009. "Taboos, Customs Hold Key to Managing Tanzania's Reefs." CoE in Action. The Coral Reef Targeted Research & Capacity Building for Management Program
(CRTR). Accessed February 28, 2017.
Economic and Social Research Foundation (ESRF), United Nations Development Program (UNDP), and Government of the Republic of Tanzania (URT). 2014. Tanzania Human Development Report 2014:
Economic Transformation for Human Development. Dar es Salaam.
Eyben, Rosalind, Naila Kabeer, and Andrea Cornwall. 2008. Conceptualizing Empowerment and the Implication for Pro Poor Growth. Brighton, UK: Institute of Development Studies, University of Sussex.
Foxton, Fred, and Fiona Massey. 2015. Analysis of Factors Affecting Earnings Using Annual Survey of Hours and Earnings: 2015. United Kingdom: Office for National Statistics.
Government of Nepal Ministry of Industry, Commerce and Supplies; Trade and Export Promotion Centre. 2019. "Handicraft." Accessed March 4, 2019.
Gul, Aliya. 2015. Exploring Linkages between Women Empowerment and Resilience to Natural Disasters in Pakistan. Thesis (Master of Research). Macquarie University, Australia.
Heckman, James J., Lance J. Lochner, and Petra E. Todd. 2008. Earnings, Functions, and Rates of Return. Working Paper 13780. NBER Working Paper Series. Massachusetts Avenue Cambridge,
Human Rights Watch (HRW). 2018. Tanzania and Zanzibar: Country Summary. Accessed March 3, 2019.
Instituto Oikos. 2015. When Handicraft is Precious. Accessed July 11, 2017.
International Trade Centre (ITC). 2010. Inclusive Tourism Linking the Handicraft Sector to Tourism Markets. Technical Report. Geneva. Accessed February 9, 2017.
Ipsos Synovate, Kenya. 2012. Market Research on Handicraft Products in East Africa – Tanzania. Belgian Development Agency (BTC). Accessed April 16, 2016.
Kabeer, Naila. 1999. "Resources, Agency, and Achievements: Reflections on the Measurement of Women's Empowerment." Development and Change 30: 435-463.
Kerr, Andrew, and Francis Teal. 2012. The Determinants of Earnings Inequalities: Panel Data Evidence from South Africa. CSAE Working Paper WPS/2012-04. Oxford.
Maferetlhane, O. I. 2012. The Role of Indigenous Knowledge in Disaster Risk Reduction: A Critical Analysis. South Africa: Potchefstroom Campus, North-West University.
Mahanty, Sango, and Trung Dinh Dang. 2012. "Vietnam's Craft Villages." New Mandala. Accessed March 5, 2019.
Mascarenhas, Aldofo. 2004. "Knowledge, Indigenous Knowledge, Peace and Development." African Journal of Indigenous Knowledge Systems 3(1): 1-15.
Mkenda, Beatrice K., and Jehovaness Aikaeli. 2014. "Informal Construction Employment, Earnings and Activities: A Boon or Bane for Tanzania?" Tanzania Economic Review 4(1; 2): 1-23.
Mincer, J. 1974. Schooling, Experience, and Earnings. New York: NBER.
Ministry of Health, Community Development, Gender, Elderly and Children [Tanzania Mainland], Ministry of Health [Zanzibar], National Bureau of Statistics Office of the Chief Government
Statistician, and ICF International. 2016. Tanzania Demographic and Health Survey and Malaria Indicator Survey 2015-16. Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, and Rockville, Maryland, USA.
Ministry of Health, Community Development, Gender, Elderly and Children (MoHCDGEC). 2019. The United Republic of Tanzania: Ministry of Health, Community Development, Gender, Elderly and
Children (MoHCDGEC); Wizara ya Afya, Maendeleo ya Jamii, Jinsia, Wazee na Watoto. Accessed March 4, 2019.
Nabi, M.N., M.Y. Sarker, M.M. Uddin Mollah, N. Chowdhury, M.N. Uddin, and M.G. Mostofa. 2002. "Women's Participation in Income Generation Through Jute Handicrafts Production in Selected
Area of Bangladesh." Online Journal of Biological Sciences 2(5): 355-357. Accessed June 14, 2016.
National Bureau of Statistics (NBS). 2013a. Key Findings 2011/2012 HBS: Tanzania Mainland. Dar es Salaam.
National Bureau of Statistics (NBS). 2013b. Population Distribution by Age and Sex. Dar es Salaam.
National Bureau of Statistics (NBS). 2014. Tanzania Household Budget Survey Report. Dar es Salaam.
National Bureau of Statistics (NBS). 2015. Integrated Labour Force Survey 2014: Analytical Report. Dar es Salaam.
Ngo, Duh Anh. 2005. Blending Handicrafts and Tourism Development the Good Way of Preservation of Tradition and Poverty Alleviation in Rural Areas. Paper presented at the workshop co-organized by Vietnam National Administration for Tourism, ASIA Seed Institute, and JODC Japan.
Nyamtema, Angelo S., Alise Bartsch-De Jong, David P. Urassa, Jaap P. Hagen, and Jos van Roosmalen. 2012. "The Quality of Antenatal Care in Rural Tanzania: What is Behind the Number of Visits?"
BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 12(70): 2-5. Accessed June 17, 2017.
O'Connor David. 2008. "Handicrafts and Their Linkage with Tourism Artisans Are Also Your Treasures." Tourism and Handicrafts. Madrid, Spain: World Tourism Organization.
Pesa Times. 2014. "Women Urged to Exploit Handicrafts Market in SA."
Polachek, Solomon W. 2007. Earnings Over the Lifecycle: The Mincer Earnings Function and Its Applications. IZA Discussion Paper No. 3181. Bonn, Germany.
Postelnicu, Luminita, Niels Hermes, and Ariane Szafarz. 2013. Defining Social Collateral in Microfinance Group Lending. CEB Working Paper No. 13/050. Bernheim, Brussels. Université
Libre de Bruxelles - Solvay Brussels School of Economics and Management Centre Emile.
Preston-Whyte, E. 1983. Black Women in the Craft and Curio Trade in KwaZulu and Natal. Unpublished report for the Human Sciences Research Council, Pretoria.
Richard, Noëlla. 2007. Handicrafts and Employment Generation for the Poorest Youth and Women. Policy Brief 17. Paris: UNESCO.
Rindskopf, D., and M. Shiyko. 2010. "Measures of Dispersion, Skewness and Kurtosis." In International Encyclopedia of Education. Edited by Penelope Peterson, Eva Bakerand Barry Mcgaw. United Kingdom: Elsevier Ltd.
Rogerson, Christian. M. 2000. "Rural Handicraft Production in the Developing World: Policy Issues for South Africa." Agrekon 39(2):193-217. Accessed April 14, 2016.
Rÿser, Rudolph C. 2012. "Indigenous and Traditional Knowledge." Reprint. Encyclopedia of Sustainability 5. Accessed April 1, 2016.
Selasini, Edward. 2008. "Maasai Women Find Lucrative Handicraft Market in US." The Arusha Times.
Szydlowski, Rachael A. 2008. "Expansion of the Vietnamese Handicraft Industry: From Local to Global." OhioLINK Electronic Theses and Dissertations Center. Athens, Ohio: Ohio University.
Tanzania Tourist Board (TTB). 2019. "Best Time to Visit Tanzania." Accessed March 4, 2019. https://www.tanzaniatourism.go.tz/en/tanzania/guides/category/faq.
Tatiyanantakul, Wachiraya, and Donruetai Kovathanakul. 2014. "Transform Family Business with Handicraft Heritage Tourism: A Case Study of the Communities at Ubon Ratchathani."
International Journal of Business Tourism and Applied Sciences 2(2): 17-25. Accessed February 24, 2017.
The Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU). 2014. "Exports of Handicrafts Surge." The Economist Intelligence Unit. Accessed March 4, 2019. http://country.eiu.com/article.aspx?articleid=211940005&Country=Nepal&topic=Economy&subtop
Thomas, Jacquiline, Niklaus Holbro and Dale Young. 2013. A Review of Sanitation and Hygiene in Tanzania. Accessed June 17, 2017.
Towseef, Mohi-ud-din, Lateef Mir A, and Sangram Bhushan. 2014. "An Analysis of Current Scenario and Contribution of Handicrafts in Indian Economy." Journal of Economics and Sustainable Development 5(9): 75-78.
United Republic of Tanzania (URT). 2010a. The Economic Survey 2010. Dar es Salaam: The Ministry of Finance.
United Republic of Tanzania (URT). 2010b. Tanzania Gender Indicators. Dar es Salaam: The Ministry of Finance.
United Republic of Tanzania (URT). 2013. Wage Order. Dar es Salaam: Government Printer.
Warren, Michael D. 1991. Using Indigenous Knowledge in Agricultural Development. World Bank Discussion Paper 127. Washington, DC: World Bank.
Warren, Michael D., and B. Rajasekaran. 1993. "Putting Local Knowledge to Good Use." International Agricultural Development 13(4): 8-10.
Waseem, Saba. 2004. Household Monies and Decision-making. Policy Research Paper No. 23. Australian Government Department of Family and Community Services. Social Policy Research
Centre. Kensington, Australia: University of New South Wales.
Willis, Robert J. 1986. "Wage Determinants: A Survey and Reinterpretation of Human Capital Earnings Functions." In Handbook of Labor Economics 1. Edited by Ashenfelter Orley and Richard Layard. 525-602. Amsterdam: Elsevier.
World Bank. 2015a. Water Supply and Sanitation in Tanzania: Turning Finance into Services for 2015 and Beyond. Accessed June 17, 2017.
World Bank. 2015b. Promoting Hand Washing and Sanitation: An Impact Evaluation of Two Large Scale Campaigns in Rural Tanzania. Accessed June 17, 2017.
World Bank. 2016. World Development Indicators Online. Accessed December 16, 2016.
Yavari, Hossein. 2008. "Reciprocal Effects of Tourism and Handicrafts." Tourism and Handicrafts. Madrid, Spain: World Tourism Organization.
Yunis, Eugenio. 2008. "Tourism and its Linkage with Handicrafts." Tourism and Handicrafts. Madrid, Spain: World Tourism Organization.
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal. Further distribution of the work must maintain attribution to the author(s) and the published work's title, journal citation, and DOI (digital object identifier).
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).
- The work does not infringe any copyright; violate any other right of any third parties; contain any scandalous, libelous, or unlawful matter; or make any improper invasion of the privacy of any person. The author(s) agrees to indemnify and hold harmless The Pennsylvania State University against any claim or proceeding undertaken on any of the aforementioned grounds.