IK: Other Ways of Knowing https://journals.psu.edu/ik <p><em>IK: Other Ways of Knowing</em> is an electronic, multidisciplinary peer-reviewed open access journal that publishes original research articles as well as review articles in all areas of indigenous knowledge from a global perspective. The journal is published twice yearly by the Pennsylvania State University Libraries, and is co-sponsored by the Penn State Libraries and the Penn State Interinstitutional Center for Indigenous Knowledge (ICIK).</p> <p>Indigenous knowledge is an expanding area of study that focuses on the ways of knowing, seeing, and thinking that are passed down orally from generation to generation. These ways of understanding reflect thousands of years of experimentation and innovation in topics like agriculture, animal husbandry, child rearing practices, education systems, medicine, and natural resource management—among many other categories. <br /> <br /> These ways of knowing are particularly important in the era of globalization, a time in which indigenous knowledge as intellectual property is taking new significance in the search for answers to many of the world's most vexing problems: disease, famine, ethnic conflict, and poverty. Indigenous knowledge has value, not only for the culture in which it develops, but also for scientists and planners seeking solutions to community problems.</p> <p>As a forum for the sharing of practical knowledge and wisdom for the benefit of all peoples, this journal is of special interest to development professionals who treasure this local knowledge, finding it extremely useful in solving complex problems of health, agriculture, education, and the environment.</p><p><em>IK: Other Ways of Knowing</em> is indexed by EBSCO and full text of the journal is now also available in EBSCO's databases.</p> The Pennsylvania State University Libraries en-US IK: Other Ways of Knowing 2377-3413 Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:<br /> <ol type="a"><br /><li>Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a <a title="Creative Commons Attribution License" href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/">Creative Commons Attribution License</a> that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.</li><br /><li>Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal. Further distribution of the work must maintain attribution to the author(s) and the published work's title, journal citation, and DOI (digital object identifier).</li><br /><li>Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See <a href="http://opcit.eprints.org/oacitation-biblio.html" target="_new">The Effect of Open Access</a>).</li><br /><li>The work does not infringe any copyright; violate any other right of any third parties; contain any scandalous, libelous, or unlawful matter; or make any improper invasion of the privacy of any person. The author(s) agrees to indemnify and hold harmless The Pennsylvania State University against any claim or proceeding undertaken on any of the aforementioned grounds.</li></ol> Full Issue https://journals.psu.edu/ik/article/view/61155 - - Copyright (c) 10.26209/ik561155 Front Matter https://journals.psu.edu/ik/article/view/61162 - - Copyright (c) 10.26209/ik561162 From the Editors https://journals.psu.edu/ik/article/view/61170 - - Copyright (c) i i 10.18113/P8ik561170 Who Knows What About Gorillas? Indigenous Knowledge, Global Justice, and Human-Gorilla Relations https://journals.psu.edu/ik/article/view/60158 The gorillas of Africa are known around the world, but African stories ofgorillas are not. Indigenous knowledge of gorillas is almost entirely absent fromthe global canon. The absence of African accounts reflects a history of colonialexclusion, inadequate opportunity, and epistemic injustice. Discountingindigenous knowledge limits understanding of gorillas and creates challengesfor justifying gorilla conservation. To be just, conservation efforts must beendorsed by those most affected: the indigenous communities neighboringgorilla habitats. As indigenous ways of knowing are underrepresented in thevery knowledge from which conservationists rationalize their efforts, adequatejustification will require seeking out and amplifying African knowledge ofgorillas. In engaging indigenous knowledge, outsiders must reflect on their ownways of knowing and be open to a dramatically different understanding. In thecontext of gorillas, this means learning other ways to know the apes andindigenous knowledge in order to inform and guide modern relationshipsbetween humans and gorillas.<br /> Adam Pérou Hermans Amir Copyright (c) 2019-05-02 2019-05-02 1 40 10.26209/ik560158 Commercialization and Marketing of Women's Indigenous Knowledge Products: A Case Study of Maasai Body Ornamental Products in Arusha, Tanzania https://journals.psu.edu/ik/article/view/60447 <p>This study casts light on constraints and potentials of Maasai indigenousknowledge and body ornament production skills. Synergy between indigenousand Western knowledge is appreciated in literature. Study findings show thatMaasai women produce indigenous body ornamental products with amplebusiness opportunities. However, there have been little commercialization andmarketing initiatives for these products. Marketing information is limited andpenetration into the market is shallow. Regression results reveal that a domesticmarket is important for generating income for Maasai women. Nonetheless,switching to export/tourist markets has a high potential for additional earnings.Productivity, market participation, income, and employment are undermined bylow education levels and specialization in production, inter alia.</p> Jehovaness Aikaeli Beatrice Kalinda Mkenda Copyright (c) 2019-05-02 2019-05-02 41 75 10.26209/ik560447 Indigenous Knowledge and Prospects for Income and Employment Generation: The Case of Handicraft Production among Rural Women in Tanzania https://journals.psu.edu/ik/article/view/60444 This paper examines the extent to which handicraft activities can generate viableincome and employment for rural women in Tanzania. Based on survey datacollected from three regions of Tanzania (Iringa, Dodoma, and Mbeya), thestudy finds that women engaged in handicrafts earn lower mean incomes thanthose in farming and livestock keeping. Handicraft activities are not donethroughout the entire year, and selling activities have peak periods. The keychallenges women face are: marketing, inadequate capital, difficulties inacquiring raw materials, and low prices. Some policy implications include:linking handicrafts to tourism activities so the activity can be promoted as aviable employment option for rural women; providing women with access toaffordable loans and inputs; providing marketing channels for selling handicraftproducts; providing support in marketing products internationally; and providingtraining on improving the quality of products so that the women can compete inboth local and international markets.<br /> Beatrice Kalinda Mkenda Jehovaness Aikaeli Copyright (c) 2019-05-02 2019-05-02 76 118 10.26209/ik560444 Rural Women Economic Empowerment, Indigenous Fermented Milk Production, and the Challenges of Modernity https://journals.psu.edu/ik/article/view/60467 <p>Traditionally, women are known as producers of fermented milk in manyAfrican communities. In more recent times, the production of fermented milkusing indigenous technology is more widely practiced by women in rural areas.In rendering support to small and medium-scale industries, many Africangovernments, NGOs, and the private sector strongly encourage the use ofcommercial starter culture in milk fermentation, while some go as far asdiscouraging or withholding support for traditional fermentation. Most womenin rural areas across Africa are unable to afford commercial starter cultures or donot have the knowledge and other required resources to use them. Yet,traditionally fermented milk holds prospects as a means of economicempowerment for rural women. This study examines the challenges andopportunities for women who live in rural areas of Rwanda and use indigenousknowledge and technology in their milk fermentation process. The study seeksto enhance the understanding of traditional fermentation techniques and thepossibilities they hold for the economic empowerment of women in ruralRwanda. In this pursuit, emphasis is placed on the cost of production in terms offinances, ease of access to raw materials, and ease and speed of production, inaddition to other production dynamics, including hygiene. Further, the researchexplores the health and nutritional benefits of traditional fermentation methods,as well as possible side effects. Finally, the shelf life and taste of traditionalprocessing methods are explored alongside modern fermented milk (usingstarter culture), all with a view to determining how much benefits accrue to onemore than the other.</p> Chika Ezeanya-Esiobu Nathan Taremwa Vedaste Ndungutse Copyright (c) 2019-05-02 2019-05-02 119 142 10.26209/ik560467 Abagoré (Empowering Rural Women in Rwanda) https://journals.psu.edu/ik/article/view/61161 StoryHouse Communications Copyright (c) 143 151 10.18113/P8ik561161 A Review of We Are Dancing for You: Native Feminisms and the Revitalization of Women's Coming-of-Age Ceremonies https://journals.psu.edu/ik/article/view/61147 Renya Ramirez Copyright (c) 2019-05-02 2019-05-02 152 153 10.26209/ik561147 A Review of Rethinking Mexican Indigenismo: The INI's Coordinating Center in Highland Chiapas and the Fate of a Utopian Project https://journals.psu.edu/ik/article/view/61144 María L. O. Muñoz Copyright (c) 2019-05-02 2019-05-02 154 155 10.26209/ik561144 New Resources on Indigenous Knowledge https://journals.psu.edu/ik/article/view/61163 - - Copyright (c) 156 164 10.26209/ik561163 UN Launches International Year of Indigenous Languages 2019 https://journals.psu.edu/ik/article/view/61164 Teodora Hasegan Copyright (c) 165 165 10.18113/P8ik561164 New Research Institution to Counteract Violence Against Indigenous Women https://journals.psu.edu/ik/article/view/61165 Teodora Hasegan Copyright (c) 166 166 10.18113/P8ik561165 Fourth Global Meeting of the Indigenous Peoples' Forum at IFAD https://journals.psu.edu/ik/article/view/61166 Teodora Hasegan Copyright (c) 167 167 10.18113/P8ik561166 Tribes Use Western and Indigenous Science to Prepare for Climate Change https://journals.psu.edu/ik/article/view/61167 Teodora Hasegan Copyright (c) 168 168 10.18113/P8ik561167 Join the L-ICIK Listserv https://journals.psu.edu/ik/article/view/61169 - - Copyright (c) 169 169 10.18113/P8ik561169