Sample List of References


Use Chicago author-date citation style. Briefly cite work in text in parentheses with author’s last name and date of publication. Include page citation if appropriate.

Sample text citations:

In describing medicinal plant knowledge in Mexico, Olson (2014) . . .

The application of traditional therapies is experiencing renewed interest in nursing curriculum (Fontain 2015, 99) . . .

Provide full bibliographic information in a list of references at the end of the article. For additional help see the Chicago Manual of Style 16th edition.



Single author

Olson, Elizabeth. 2014. Indigenous Knowledge and Development: Livelihoods, Health Experiences, and Medicinal Plant Knowledge in a Mexican Biosphere Reserve. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books.

Sample text citation: (Olson 2014)
include page citation if appropriate. (Olson 2014, 99-100)


Include edition if relevant.

Fontain, Karen Lee. 2015. Complementary and Alternative Therapies for Nursing. 4th ed. Boston: Pearson.


Multiple authors – List all authors


O’Hern, Darren M. and Yoshiko Nozaki. 2014. Natural Science Education, Indigenous Knowledge, and Sustainable Development in Rural and Urban Schools in Kenya: Toward Critical Postcolonial Curriculum Policies and Practices. Rotterdam: Sense Publishers.

Sample text citation: (O’Hern and Nozaki 2014)
List up to 4 authors. For works with more than 4 authors, list first author only in text citation.

Edited, translated, or compiled volume (use ed., eds., trans., comp., comps.)

Ramos, Gabriela, ed. 2014. Indigenous Intellectuals: Knowledge, Power, and Colonial Culture in Colonial Mexico and the Andes. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.

Sample text citation: (Ramos 2014)


Book in a series – if series is numbered include the number.


Gordon, David and Shepard Krech, eds. 2012. Indigenous Knowledge and the Environment in Africa and North America. Ohio University Press Series in Ecology and History. Athens, OH: Ohio University Press.

Sample text citation: (Gordon and Shepard 2012)


Chapter or other part of a book or edited volume.


Polthanee, Anan and Gerald G. Marten. 1986. “Rainfed Cropping System in Northern Thailand.” In Traditional Agriculture in Southeast Asia, edited by Gerald G. Marten, 103-131. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.

Sample text citation: (Polthanee 1986)


Journal Articles




Briggs, John. 2005. “The Use of Indigenous Knowledge in Development: Problems and Challenges.” Progress in Development Studies 5: 99–114.

Sample text citation: (Briggs 2005)


Online (include DOI or website address and accessed date)


Khan, Shujaul M., Sue Page, Habib Ahmad, Hamayun Shaheen, Zahid Ullah, Mushtaq Ahmad, and David M. Harper. 2015. “Medicinal Flora and Ethnoecological Knowledge in the Naran Valley, Western Himalaya, Pakistan.” Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine 9(1). Accessed March 7, 2015. doi: 10.1186/1746-4269-9-1

Sample text citation: (Khan 2015)


Working Papers


Rao, Vijayendra. 2009. Dignity through Discourse: Poverty and the Culture of Deliberation in Indian Village Democracies. Policy Research Working Paper 4924. Washington, DC: World Bank.

Sample text citation: (Rao 2009)

Book review


Fur, Gunlog. 2009. Review of Indigenous peoples. Self-determination, Knowledge, Indigeneity edited by Henry Minde. Scandinavian Journal of History 34(2): 211-214.

Sample text citation: (Fur 2009)


Thesis or dissertation

Settee, Priscilla. 2007. “Pimatisiwin: Indigenous Knowledge Systems, Our Time has Come. (Ph.D. diss. University of Saskatchewan, Canada).

Sample text citation: (Settee 2007)

Conference Paper or presentation


Sheehy, James J. 2014. “Architecture, Ancestors and Ritual in Group 9M-22, Copan, Honduras. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Anthropological Association, Washington, D.C. December 6.

Sample text citation: (Sheehy 2014)



If available include date the site was last updated. If not available include date accessed.


United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO). “UNESCO Interactive Atlas of the World’s Languages in Danger,” last modified January 8, 2014. Accessed February 23, 2015.

Sample text citation: (UNESCO 2014)


World Intellectual Property Office (WIPO). “Indigenous Peoples and Local Communities Portal”. Accessed March 1, 2015.

Sample text citation: (WIPO 2015)



Chavez, Will. 2015. "Tribe Helps River Cane Thrive with Fire." Cherokee Phoenix January 15.

Sample text citation: (Chavez 2015)

Email or Text Message


Email and text messages are rarely cited in Reference Lists. Include a text citation.


Sample text citations:

(Maretzki, Audrey. email correspondence with author March 1, 2015)

(In a text message to the author on March 1, 2015 Aurdrey Maretzki confirmed . . .)

Blog Post


Metcalfe, Jessica R. 2014. “Commemorating the Code Talkers with Fashion.” Beyond Buckskin: About Native American Fashion, November 11. Accessed March 8, 2015.

Sample text citation: (Metcalfe 2014)


U.S. Government Information


Include SuDoc numbers when available.


House or Senate Reports.


U.S. Senate. Select Committee on Indian Affairs. 1988. Establishing As the Policy of the U.S. the Preservation, Protection, and Promotion of the Rights of Indigenous Americans To Use, Practice and Develop Native American Languages (S. Rpt. 100-560). Washington: GPO. (Y1.1/5:100-560).

Sample text citation: (S. Rpt. 100-560)


Congressional Hearings.


U.S. Senate. Select Committee on Indian Affairs. 1987. Culturally Relevant Early Education Programs Hearing. Nov. 24, 1987. (S. Hrg. 100-570) Washington, DC: GPO. (Y4.In2/11:S.hrg.100-570)

Sample text citation: (S. Hrg. 100-570)

Presidential Proclamations.


Hayes, Rutherford B. 1879. Proclamation 243: Warning Against Unauthorized Settlement in the Indian Territory,

Sample text citation (Hayes, Pres. Proclamation 243)


International Organizations.


United Nations Documents. When available include UN Series Symbol numbers


Personal Authors or Editors

Twarog, Sophia and Promila Kapoor, eds. 2004. Protecting and Promoting Traditional Knowledge: Systems, National Experiences, and International Dimension. New York: United Nations. (UNCTAD/DITC/TED/10).

Sample text citation: (Twarog and Kapoor 2004)


In publications with no personal authors—use agency as the corporate author.


World Intellectual Property Office. 2003. Developing a National Strategy on Intellectual Property and Traditional Knowledge, Traditional Cultural Expressions and Genetic Resources. Background Brief no. 3. Geneva: WIPO. Accessed March 18, 2015.

Sample text citation: (WIPO 2003)



United Nations. General Assembly. 2008. United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples. Adopted on 13 September 2007. New York: UN Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights. (ST/HR/PUB/08/4).

Sample text citation: (UN GA 2008)


Citations to law materials


For more examples see Cornell Legal Information Institute’s Introduction to Basic Legal Citation


Public Laws


American Indian Religious Freedom Act, Pub. L. No. 95-341, 92 Stat. 469 (1978).

American Indian Religious Freedom Act, 42 U.S.C. § 1996 (1978).

Sample text citation: (42 U.S.C. 1996)



United Nations. International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of. Racial Discrimination, 660 UNTS 195 (December 21, 1965)

Sample text citation: (660 UNTS 195)

Court cases


Frank Fools Crow v. Gullet, 706 F. 2d 856 (1983),

Sample text citation (Crow, 706 F. 2d 856)


Code of Federal Regulations

Rights-of Way over Indian Lands, 25 CFR 169 (2014)

Sample text citation: (25 CFR 169)


Federal Register


Indian Child Welfare Act, 59 FR 2256, (Jan. 13, 1994)

Sample text citation: (59 FR 2256)


Audiovisual Materials

Sound Recordings

Miller, Terry E. and Jarernchai Chonpairot, comps. 2008. Puppet Theater in Isan, recorded Mar. 1973-Feb. 1974. The musical heritage of northeast Thailand vol. 2. [Makanda, Ill.]: EarthCDs.

Sample text citation: (Miller and Chonpairot 2008)

Video -- DVD

Thompson, Sally, prod. 2006. Why save a language? Missoula, MT: The University of Montana, Center for Continuing Education, Regional Learning Project, DVD.

Sample text citation: (Thompson 2006)


Video – Online

Osseo-Asare, Fran. [2010]. African Cuisine. AcademIK Connections, module 5. University Park, Pennsylvania State University. Video, 4:50 minutes.

Sample text citation: (Osseo-Asare 2010)

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